China. Beijing`s interests in Afghanistan are primarily economic, as it hopes to integrate it into the Belt and Road Initiative, a collection of development and investment projects. China is the country`s largest source of foreign investment and is interested in accessing Afghanistan`s vast natural resources. In addition, Beijing is concerned that terrorists are using Afghanistan to establish links within China. In late 2019, Afghan and Taliban officials attended a conference in Beijing and Chinese leaders backed an agreement between the United States and the Taliban. Despite the peace agreement between the United States and the Taliban, insurgent attacks on Afghan security forces have reportedly intensified in the country. In the 45 days following the agreement (between March 1 and April 15, 2020), the Taliban carried out more than 4,500 attacks in Afghanistan, an increase of more than 70% over the same period last year.  More than 900 Afghan security forces were killed during this period, compared to about 520 in the same period the previous year. Meanwhile, as a result of the agreement, the number of offensives and airstrikes by Afghan and U.S. forces against the Taliban has decreased significantly, from about 1,660 in the same period last year. Pentagon spokesman Jonathan Hoffman said that while the Taliban had stopped carrying out attacks against U.S.-led coalition forces in Afghanistan, the violence was still “unacceptable” and “not conducive to a diplomatic solution.” He added: “We have continued to carry out defensive attacks to defend our partners in the region, and we will continue to do so.”  On February 29, 2020, the United States and the Taliban signed a peace agreement after more than 18 years of conflict in Doha, Qatar. The agreement contained four main provisions (US State Department, February 29, 2020): minutes before the signing of the agreement, a joint statement by the United States and the Afghan government indicated that U.S. and NATO troops would withdraw from Afghanistan within 14 months.
However, there are a number of hooks that can prevent the full implementation of the agreement. On the one hand, the Afghan government was not involved in the negotiations.